Saved for the nation! (National Maritime Museum) - Great news! Thanks to a £1.5 million donation from the Eyal Ofer Family Foundation, and additional contributions from the public, two works by George Stubbs are being kept in the UK where they were commissioned and executed.
The Height of Camp: Kitsch, Colour and Casualwear at Butlins (Sean O’Hagan at The Guardian) - Photoseries by Anna Fox.
Why Painting Still Matters (Nicholas Wroe and Simon Grant at The Guardian) - Interviews with the five stars of the upcoming ‘Painting Now’ exhibition at Tate Britian.
Installing Painting Now at Tate Britain (Tate) - A behind-the-scenes look at installing an exhibition.
Facebook hires architect Frank Gehry for Dublin, London offices (David Ng at the LA Times)
Pressure Mounts to Clear Up Ownership of Nazi-Looted Art (Alison Smale and Melissa Eddy at The NY Times) - The case continues!
From Nazis to Napoleon: The Art of War – Quiz (Jonathan Jones at The Guardian)
Freud in Austria: Why did Lucian finally relent and allow his paintings to be shown in Austria? (Marcus Field at The Independent)
Boulevard Montmartre, 1897
Pont Boïeldieu in Rouen, Rainy Weather, 1896
I can’t help but feel a bit sorry for Camille Pissarro (1830-1903); he always seems to get eclipsed by his peers Monet, Renoir and Cézanne, when it comes to contemporary interest. This is despite him being a huge influence to later post-Impressionists, such as Van Gogh and Gauguin.
Pissarro was born in the Danish West Indies (now the US Virgin Islands). After studying there in his youth, Pissarro moved to France in his mid-twenties and exhibited at the Paris Salon. Whilst living in the city, Pissarro frequently painted the famous Boulevard Montmartre at different times of the day and the year. This series is probably what the artist eventually became best known for.
Architecture Week has come to an end! So, as promised, here is a summary post of the all the major posts of the week. This will also be a permanent feature of the 'More' section on ArtMastered. Feedback is always appreciated.
London has some great architecture-related exhibitions coming up; I would say that the National Gallery’s Building the Picture: Architecture in Italian Renaissance Painting (30th April to 27th September 2014) and the Royal Academy’s Sensing Spaces: Architecture Reimagined (25th January to 6th April 2014) sound particularly good! But if you can’t wait that long, then head to the Royal Academy anyway to see the Richard Rogers RA: Inside Out show, which runs till 13th October.
Sagrada Família, Barcelona, 1882-
El Capricho, Cantabria, 1883-85
Casa Milà, Barcelona, 1906-12
Antoni Gaudí (1852-1926) was a Spanish architect known for his extremely distinct style of architecture. Many of his works feature ornamentation involving the use of ceramics, stained glass and ironwork. These add colour and texture to the building’s appearance, so it is no wonder that Gaudí’s style is so popular, even today. His works in Barcelona are still major tourist destinations, particularly the famous Sagrada Família church (due to finally be finished in 2026, one hundred years after Gaudí’s death).
Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, completed 1954
Villa Savoye, Poissy, France, 1928-31
Centre Le Corbusier (Heidi Weber Museum), Zürich, Switzerland, 1963-67
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, aka.Le Corbusier (1887-1965), was born in La Chaux-de-Fonds in Switzerland, though he lived and worked in France throughout most of his career. Unlike some of the other modern architects we have looked at this week, Le Corbusier also experimented with painting, drawing and even furniture design.
Le Corbusier’s style is summarised in his Five Points of Architecture guide, which he comprised in the 1920s. These points addressed the artist’s interest in roof gardens, columns as walls (or pilotis), horizontal windows, and freedom in the designs of both the building’s interior and its façade. Other aspects of Le Corbusier’s style that allow his works to become quite recognisable include a stark white colour scheme and ‘missing’ walls.
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, completed 1959 (own image)
Robie House, Chicago, Illinois, 1908-10
Fallingwater, Mill Run, Pennsylvania, 1935
Is this America’s greatest ever architect? Many seem to think so! Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) was born just after the end of the American Civil War, which I was quite surprised to read; I didn’t realise his career had spanned such a huge amount of time! Working in the first half of the 20th century meant that Wright became a pioneer of modern architecture.
Though he is possibly best known for designing New York City’s Guggenheim Museum, Wright’s earlier works tend to be characterised by rectangular layers juxtaposed against each other to create a sense of sheltered space, such as with Robie House, and deep angled roofs (see the Nathan G. Moore House of 1895). Wright also coined the term ‘organic architecture’ as a way of describing buildings and structures that harmonise the natural and artificial worlds. A prime example of Wright’s organic buildings is Fallingwater, or the Kaufmann Residence.
Selimiye Mosque, Edirne, Turkey, 1569-75
Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge, Višegrad, Bosnia and Herzegovina, c.1577
Khusruwiyah Mosque, Aleppo, Syria, completed 1547
Mimar Sinan (1489-1588), also referred to as simply ‘Sinan’, is the architect most associated with the classical Ottoman era. Little is known about Sinan’s birth and early life, however we do know that he joined the Ottoman army in his twenties, where he was quickly promoted to the position of construction officer. This was the beginning of a very long career in architecture!
Though he is most famous for his beautiful mosques, Sinan also designed palaces, colleges, schools, baths, storehouses, hospitals, fountains and bridges. These works spanned five decades, during which he worked for three Ottoman Emperors: Suleiman I, Selim II and Murad III.
Villa Godi Valmarana, Veneto, 1537-42
Villa Almerico-Capra ‘The Rotunda’, Veneto, began 1567
Chiswick House, London, completed 1729
Andrea Palladio (1509-80) is one of Italy’s most important architects, especially in terms of influence and legacy. He worked in Venice during the late Renaissance/early Mannerist era, and is most famous for the numerous villas he built in the Veneto region of Italy. Palladio’s work was greatly influenced by classical architecture of Greece and Rome; notice how the façade of the Villa Almerico-Capra features a pediment-topped row of columns (click here to read about the classical orders of architecture), much like the façades of the Pantheon and the Parthenon, though the latter has been significantly damaged.
Palladian architecture (aka. ‘Palladianism’), became extremely popular in the 17th and 18th centuries, particularly in England and North America. Chiswick House, designed by Lord Burlington and William Kent, is a major example of the Palladian style being adopted well after Palladio’s death. Other Palladianist building to consider include The Rotunda at the University of Virginia and the Queen’s House in Greenwich, which was built by major Palladian reformer Inigo Jones.